Industrial Fuses and How They Work
October 9, 2018
Why Overcurrent Protection
All electrical systems eventually experience overcurrents. Unless removed in time, even moderate overcurrents quickly overheat system components, damaging insulation, conductors, and equipment. Large overcurrents may melt conductors and vaporize insulation. Very high currents produce magnetic forces that bend and twist bus bars. These high currents can pull cables from their terminals and crack insulators and spacers.
Too frequently, fires, explosions, poisonous fumes and panic accompany uncontrolled overcurrents. This not only damages electrical systems and equipment, but may cause injury or death to personnel nearby.
To reduce these hazards, the National Electrical Code® (NEC®), OSHA regulations, and other applicable design and installation standards require overcurrent protection that will disconnect overloaded or faulted equipment.
Industry and governmental organizations have developed performance standards for overcurrent devices and testing procedures that show compliance with the standards and with the NEC. These organizations include: the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA), and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), all of which work in conjunction with Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratories (NRTL) such as Underwriters Laboratories (UL).
Electrical systems must meet applicable code requirements including those for overcurrent protection before electric utilities are allowed to provide electric power to a facility.
What is Quality Overcurrent Protection?
A system with quality overcurrent protection has the following characteristics:
- Meets all legal requirements, such as NEC, OSHA, local codes, etc.
- Provides maximum safety for personnel, exceeding minimum code requirements as necessary.
- Minimizes overcurrent damage to property, equipment, and electrical systems.
- Provides coordinated protection. Only the protective device immediately on the line side of an overcurrent opens to protect the system and minimize unnecessary downtime.
- Is cost effective while providing reserve interrupting capacity for future growth.
- Consists of equipment and components not subject to obsolescence and requiring only minimum maintenance that can be performed by regular maintenance personnel using readily available tools and equipment.
Overcurrent Types and Effects
An overcurrent is any current that exceeds the ampere rating of conductors, equipment, or devices under conditions of use. The term "overcurrent" includes both overloads and short-circuits.
An overload is an overcurrent confined to normal current paths in which there is no insulation breakdown.
Sustained overloads are commonly caused by installing excessive equipment such as additional lighting fixtures or too many motors. Sustained overloads are also caused by overloading mechanical equipment and by equipment breakdown such as failed bearings. If not disconnected within established time limits, sustained overloads eventually overheat circuit components causing thermal damage to insulation and other system components.
Overcurrent protective devices must disconnect circuits and equipment experiencing continuous or sustained overloads before overheating occurs. Even moderate insulation overheating can seriously reduce the life of the components and/or equipment involved. For example, motors overloaded by just 15% may experience less than 50% of normal insulation life.
Temporary overloads occur frequently. Common causes include temporary equipment overloads such as a machine tool taking too deep of a cut, or simply the starting of an inductive load such as a motor. Since temporary overloads are by definition harmless, overcurrent protective devices should not open or clear the circuit.
It is important to realize that fuses selected must have sufficient time-delay to allow motors to start and temporary overloads to subside. However, should the overcurrent continue, fuses must then open before system components are damaged. Littelfuse POWR-PRO® and POWR-GARD® time-delay fuses are designed to meet these types of protective needs. In general, time-delay fuses hold 500% of the rated current for a minimum of ten seconds, yet will still open quickly on higher values of current.
Even though government-mandated high-efficiency motors and NEMA Design E motors have much higher locked rotor currents, POWR-PRO® time-delay fuses such as the FLSR_ID, LLSRK_ID, or IDSR series have sufficient time-delay to permit motors to start when the fuses are properly selected in accordance with the NEC®.
A short-circuit is an overcurrent flowing outside of its normal path. Types of short-circuits are generally divided into three categories: bolted faults, arcing faults, and ground faults. Each type of short-circuit is defined in the Terms and Definitions section.
A short-circuit is caused by an insulation breakdown or faulty connection. During a circuit's normal operation, the connected load determines current. When a short-circuit occurs, the current bypasses the normal load and takes a "shorter path," hence the term ‘short-circuit'. Since there is no load impedance, the only factor limiting current flow is the total distribution system's impedance from the utility's generators to the point of fault.
A typical electrical system might have a normal load impedance of 10 ohms. But in a single-phase situation, the same system might have a load impedance of 0.005 ohms or less. In order to compare the two scenarios, it is best to apply Ohm's Law (I = E/R for AC systems). A 480 volt single-phase circuit with the 10 ohm load impedance would draw 48 amperes (480/10 = 48). If the same circuit has a 0.005 ohm system impedance when the load is shorted, the available fault current would increase significantly to 96,000 amperes (480/0.005 = 96,000).
As stated, short-circuits are currents that flow outside of their normal path. Regardless of the magnitude of overcurrent, the excessive current must be removed quickly. If not removed promptly, the large currents associated with short-circuits may have three profound effects on an electrical system: heating, magnetic stress, and arcing.
Heating occurs in every part of an electrical system when current passes through the system. When overcurrents are large enough, heating is practically instantaneous. The energy in such overcurrents is measured in ampere-squared seconds (I2t). An overcurrent of 10,000 amperes that lasts for 0.01 seconds has an I2t of 1,000,000 A2s. If the current could be reduced from 10,000 amperes to 1,000 amperes for the same period of time, the corresponding I2t would be reduced to 10,000 A2s, or just one percent of the original value.
If the current in a conductor increases 10 times, the I2t increases 100 times. A current of only 7,500 amperes can melt a #8 AWG copper wire in 0.1 second. Within eight milliseconds (0.008 seconds or one-half cycle), a current of 6,500 amperes can raise the temperature of #12 AWG THHN thermoplastic insulated copper wire from its operating temperature of 75°C to its maximum short-circuit temperature of 150°C. Any currents larger than this may immediately vaporize organic insulations. Arcs at the point of fault or from mechanical switching such as automatic transfer switches or circuit breakers may ignite the vapors causing violent explosions and electrical flash.
Magnetic stress (or force) is a function of the peak current squared. Fault currents of 100,000 amperes can exert forces of more than 7,000 lb. per foot of bus bar. Stresses of this magnitude may damage insulation, pull conductors from terminals, and stress equipment terminals sufficiently such that significant damage occurs.
Arcing at the point of fault melts and vaporizes all of the conductors and components involved in the fault. The arcs often burn through raceways and equipment enclosures, showering the area with molten metal that quickly starts fires and/or injures any personnel in the area. Additional short-circuits are often created when vaporized material is deposited on insulators and other surfaces. Sustained arcing-faults vaporize organic insulation, and the vapors may explode or burn.
Whether the effects are heating, magnetic stress, and/or arcing, the potential damage to electrical systems can be significant as a result of short-circuits occurring.
II. Selection Considerations
Selection Considerations for Fuses (600 volts and below)
Since overcurrent protection is crucial to reliable electrical system operation and safety, overcurrent device selection and application should be carefully considered. When selecting fuses, the following parameters or considerations need to be evaluated:
- Current Rating
- Voltage Rating
- Interrupting Rating
- Type of Protection and Fuse Characteristics
- Current Limitation
- Physical Size
General Industrial Fusing Recommendations
Based on the above selection considerations, the following is recommended:
Fuses with ampere ratings from 1/10 through 600 amperes
- When available fault currents are less than 100,000 amperes and when equipment does not require the more current-limiting characteristics of UL Class RK1 fuses, FLNR and FLSR_ID Series Class RK5 current-limiting fuses provide superior time-delay and cycling characteristics at a lower cost than RK1 fuses. If available fault currents exceed 100,000 amperes, equipment may need the additional current-limitation capabilities of the LLNRK, LLSRK and LLSRK_ID series Class RK1 fuses.
- Fast-acting JLLN and JLLS series Class T fuses possess space-saving features that make them especially suitable for protection of molded case circuit breakers, meter banks, and similar limited-space applications.
- Time-delay JTD_ID and JTD series Class J fuses are used in OEM motor control center applications as well as other MRO motor and transformer applications requiring space-saving IEC Type 2 protection.
- Class CC and Class CD series fuses are used in control circuits and control panels where space is at a premium. The Littelfuse POWR-PRO CCMR series fuses are best used for protection of small motors, while the Littelfuse KLDR series fuses provide optimal protection for control power transformers and similar devices.
For questions about product applications, call our Technical Support Group at 800-TEC-FUSE.
Fuses with ampere ratings from 601 through 6,000 amperes
For superior protection of most general-purpose and motor circuits, it is recommended to use the POWR-PRO® KLPC series Class L fuses. The Class L fuses are the only time-delay fuse series available in these higher ampere ratings.
Information on all the Littelfuse fuse series referenced above can be found on the UL/CSA Fuse Classes and Applications Charts found in the Technical Application Guide at the end of the POWR-GARD products catalog.
Industrial Circuit Protection Checklist
To select the proper overcurrent protective device for an electrical system, circuit and system designers should ask themselves the following questions before a system is designed:
- What is the normal or average current expected?
- What is the maximum continuous (three hours or more) current expected?
- What inrush or temporary surge currents can be expected?
- Are the overcurrent protective devices able to distinguish between expected inrush and surge currents, and open under sustained overloads and fault conditions?
- What kind of environmental extremes are possible? Dust, humidity, temperature extremes and other factors need to be considered.
- What is the maximum available fault current the protective device may have to interrupt?
- Is the overcurrent protective device rated for the system voltage?
- Will the overcurrent protective device provide the safest and most reliable protection for the specific equipment?
- Under short-circuit conditions, will the overcurrent protective device minimize the possibility of a fire or explosion?
- Does the overcurrent protective device meet all the applicable safety standards and installation requirements?
Answers to these questions and other criteria will help to determine the type overcurrent protection device to use for optimum safety, reliability and performance.